Brain and other organs affected by ionising radiation

Neuropsychiatric effects of incorporated radionuclides

Neuropsychiatric Effects of Ionizing Radiation
Chapter 6 Neuropsychiatric Effects of Chronic Irradiation

Pages 142-143
Table 6.2 Neuropsychiatric Effects of Incorporated Radionuclides
[by Lazarev N.V., 1951; Bajenov V.A. et al., 1990; Jzuravlev V.F., 1990 et al.]  Strontium 89 (Sr-89) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2 = 50.5 days
Strontium 90 (Sr-90) β-emitter; T1/2=29.12 years

Selectively deposited in skeleton (mainly in bone growth zone), especially in pregnancy and lactation:  It enters fetus through placenta; enters breast milk. Less than 1% is accumulated in soft tissue.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms include autonomic asthenic syndrome and osteoalgetic syndrome with organic damage in the central nervous system.

Iodine 131 (I-131) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=8.04 days
Iodine 133 (I-133) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2 = 20.8 hours

Thyroid, hypophysis and kidneys are the critical organs targeted especially in children.  It is also deposited in placenta and fetus.  It can induce thyroid, parathyroid and breast tumors and polyglandular endocrine pathology.
Peripheral polyneuritis, specific neck dysesthesia and neuralgia, Horner’s syndrome, migraine attacks, and voice hoarseness are among the neuropsychiatric symptoms described.  Effect of radioactive iodine can lead to the rise of hypothyroidism in fetuses, newborns and children, eventually leading to cretinism and other psychoneurological disorders.

Cesium 134 (Cs-134) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=2.062 years
Cesium 137 (Cs-137) γ- emitter; T1/2=30 years

Relatively even distribution in the body.  Accumulates in muscles, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeleton.  It enters fetus through placenta and also enters breast milk.  Data are available about cesium accumulation in brain.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms of cesium incorporation include autonomic asthenic and depression syndromes with organic damage in the central nervous system and autonomic polyneuritis……..
Thallium 204 (Tl-204) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=3.779 years

Accumulates in muscles, skeleton and parenchymal viscera.  In the skin it is mainly deposited in the growth zone of hair follicles; alteration in the creatine synthesis in hair bulbs can result in alopecia…….
Radium 226 (Ra-226) α-, β- and γ-emitter; T1/2=1,600 years

Deposited in bone tissues, kidneys and salivary glands.  Radium intoxication is characterized by destruction of bone tissues; radiation osteitis leads to increased brittleness and pathological fractures of bones.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms of radium injuries include autonomic asthenic disorders; specific symptoms of osteoalgetic syndrome such as pain in bones of hands and legs, sternum, ribs, and sometimes spine; organic injuries in the central nervous system; and radiation cataract.

Thorium 228 (Th-228) α-, β- and γ-emitter; T1/2=1.9131 years

Affinity towards bones.  Relatively mild reaction of hematopoiesis can be associated with pronounced neurological symptoms.

Uranium 238 (U-238) α-, β- and γ-emitter; T1/2=4.468 x 109 years

Extremely strong protoplasmic poison.  Bones are the critical organ targeted.  Also accumulates in parenchymal organs.  Uranium intoxication is peculiar with affinities to many organs/systems, particularly characterized by autonomic asthenic syndrome, autonomic dysfunction, organic damages in the central nervous system, and paralysis.


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